In areas where systems need to interact, standards and specifications play an important role. Natural languages, Morse code, or international maritime signal flags are examples of such standards.

Currently, many organizations develop standards for computers and other digital systems. These include ISO, IEEE, IEC and W3C. The very existence of such organizations proves that the effect of standardization justifies the cost of their maintenance.

There are certain standards in the field of operating system development, POSIX is one example. Full standardization of operating system design principles and programs could be the next logical step on this path.